Discourse - Prediction.

Tadros has listed 6 patterns of prediction in text. Each type forms a pair, with a predictive part V and a predicted part D - sometimes they are in separate sentences, or separated by colon, dash, or by phrases. There are several rules for formation of these :-

Enumeration. For example ….

  • The major points are ……
  • The following, for example, are all short story openings …,
  • there are a number of ways in which ….. (and about 50 different words can be substituted for ways)

Advance Labelling e.g. ….

  • This allows us to make the important distinction between … (where the author is promising to make the distinction he is signalling)
  • We can show this is a simple diagram …..
  • Consider now the ……. of a firm

Reporting can use factive verbs (show, realise, prove, know) or non-factive (claim, suggest, think, state) With the factives, they are being expressed as the authors opinion, but non-factives, the author is not committed to the truth of his statement. There are nearly 60 verbs in this category.

Recapitulation e.g.

  • it was mentioned earlier ……,
  • in chapter ……. we ……

Hypotheticality e.g

  • Suppose the legislator could draft rules ……..
  • Let us call the two people X and Y …….
  • If X were not elusive …..

Question e.g

  • rhetorical questions such as "Is college worthwhile ?"
  • "How can we reconcile X and Y"

Complex patterns are also possible (Tadros, 1994, p. 69-82 references)

This tabulation gives an idea of the way that time (and the future) is included in our thoughts and in discourse in general

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