Theory - This tool is based on the hypothesis
that one of the main structures in all communication
(and text) is:-
1. The description of a situation, and
2. The further evaluation of the situation
3. In many cases, a basis for the evaluation is also
In a simple example "it's raining" describes
a situation (and probably implies unhappiness, otherwise
the speaker would not have mentioned it), "it's
raining heavily" adds the evaluation that the rainfall
is heavy, and "it's raining heavily, I can hear
the rain on the roof" adds a basis for the evaluation.
Nearly all sentences fall into this pattern, and the
phenomenon is so widespread that we can even ask if
all thought also takes this pattern too.
Sometimes, as in the example below, the situation and
evaluation need to be inferred from the text.
I have adapted this tool from the work of Michael Hoey
(1994) "Signalling in discourse:a functional analysis
of a common discourse pattern in written and spoken
English". In: Coulthard, (ed.) Advances in Written
Text Analysis, Routledge, London. The same pattern
is also used by Eugene Winter in the the same work,
and is a familiar tool from text analysis